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  • Photovoltaics

Rapid Open-Air Fabrication of Perovskite Solar Modules

Authors Nicholas Rolston, William J. Scheideler, Austin C. Flick, Oliver Zhao, Michael Woodhouse, and Reinhold H. Dauskardt


We report on the open-air fabrication of perovskite solar modules with key advances, including scalable large-area spray deposition, new monolithic integration scribing techniques, advanced photoluminescence characterization, and reproducible high-throughput manufacturability. Perovskite deposition with linear speeds of 12 m/min without post-annealing is demonstrated, with improved device performance, luminescent yield, and >10× carrier lifetimes. Manufacturability using monolithic integration of series-connected modules is accomplished with a new indirect fibre laser ablation scribing method. A stable cell and module power output of 18.0% and 15.5%, respectively, was achieved with a subcell Voc > 1.06 V. A comprehensive supporting techno-economic analysis details the entire in-line manufacturing process from the glass substrate to the junction box of the encapsulated module. The module manufacturing cost, the balance of system costs, and levelized cost of energy for a range of module efficiencies and lifetimes provide insights into the necessary tool speeds, efficiencies, and lifetimes for utility-scale energy generation.

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